Butterflies, Moths, and Skippers
Butterflies, moths, and skippers are some of the most beautiful of all insects. Their striking appearance adds both color and activity to the most pleasing of landscapes. They may also be observed more easily and closely than other species of wildlife. Moths expand the enjoyment time of your garden because they are active primarily during the night, while butterflies and skippers are active during the day.
Butterflies, skippers, and moths belong to the order Lepidoptera. Virtually all members of this order are instrumental in pollinating plants, some specific to a single plant species. Lepidopterans should be conserved and managed because they are an essential component of both the animal food chain and the reproductive process of plants. Locally, many songbirds, reptiles, and amphibians depend upon these insects to survive. The best way to conserve Lepidopterans is to provide suitable habitats. This publication was developed to provide property owners or tenants the information necessary to create these habitats with the greatest ease.
Lepidopteran Physical Characteristics
A key method of determining Lepidopteran identity is by observing antenna shape. A butterfly will have knobby or clubbed looking antennae while a moth’s antennae will be feathery, plumed, or threadlike. The antennae of the skipper will appear to be clubbed, yet with a feathery “hook” at the end. The skipper appears to be an intermediate group between the butterfly and moth. Remember, not all moths are active only at night. The Hummingbird Sphinx moth, for example, feeds during the day, and from a distance, looks and sounds like a hummingbird.
Lepidopterans are known for their ability to undergo metamorphosis — a change in form and function. This change occurs through the completion of four stages. First, the butterfly begins as a fertilized egg. It is laid inconspicuously in a group or singly, usually under a leaf, around a stem, or in leaf litter. Depending upon environmental conditions, the egg will hatch in about five to ten days. The next stage is the larval or caterpillar stage. During this time, the caterpillar feeds on plant material to gain enough energy reserves to sustain itself through the next stage of development. Next, the pupa or chrysalis stage occurs when the caterpillar finds a suitable plant on which to weave a small silk patch for attachment and complete growth of a pupal skin.
The chrysalis matures in about two weeks. At that time, the adult butterfly emerges with wet, folded wings. After drying, the wings are ready for flight. The adult lifespan, barring predation, is about six days for males and nine days for females. Silk moths such as the beautiful Luna moth, do not feed as adults. Rather, their sole function as adults is to find partners and mate.
Lepidopterans display their most noticeable attributes by reflecting light. Light is reflected by the thousands of tiny scales that cover their four wings. Each scale grows from a single cell and has several important functions. Scales rub off easily, aiding the butterfly in escape from predators. Scales also enable the butterfly to absorb light, which is essential for maintaining body temperature. Some scales, usually in males, produce scents during courtship. Finally, scales produce the brilliant or sometimes dull colors of butterflies and moths. The colors can be the result of pigmentation or scale structure. Often, scales are shaped like small prisms that diffract light into iridescent colors. Some scales that appear to be white are actually hollow and clear, allowing light to be reflected and scattered. Structurally created colors are enhanced by fluttering of the wings, which continually changes both the angle of light and intensity of reflection.
Lepidopteran wings display some colors of light beyond the human range of visual perception. Ultraviolet rays are crucial for survival because they guide feeding and reproductive behavior. Lepidopterans use ultraviolet rays as visual cues to locate nectar in flowering plants. Unseen to humans, some blossoms have “directions” to nectar painted in ultraviolet light upon the petals of the flower. Males use ultraviolet light during courtship by reflecting it from their rapidly fluttering wings. This display action produces a kaleidoscope effect intended to catch the attention of a nearby female.
Lepidopterans are adept at detecting plants with suitable nectar in two ways, other than visually. First, they use their antennae, which serve as the primary olfactory receptor, to sample the essence of a plant. Second, on some female butterflies, their two front legs have adapted for the purpose of “tasting” a plant to determine if it is the correct species on which to lay eggs.
Some species of butterflies exhibit cryptic, or camouflaging colors. Moths, for instance, may be dull across all body surfaces while some butterflies have only a dull appearance on the underside of their wings. In this instance, the brilliant colors above function to communicate with other butterflies while the plain sides function to hide them from predators. Some butterflies mimic color patterns of poisonous butterflies, and others may have false antennae on the posterior end of their body, giving them a higher chance of surviving a “frontal” predator attack.
In addition to interesting physical characteristics, Lepidopterans also exhibit several unique behavioral characteristics, one of which is puddling. This occurs when many butterflies or moths gather around a puddle of water or a damp area from which water has evaporated and created a concentration of minerals that they need. Sodium is the primary attractant. For this reason they can be seen gathering on carrion, animal feces, urination sites, and old campfires. Males exhibit this behavior more than females because they require additional sodium for reproduction.
Another behavior exhibited by Lepidopterans is that of courting. Males, while patrolling or perching, are drawn to females by detection of their movement and pheromones. When they have located a potential mate, males begin fluttering their wings conspicuously and displaying their ultraviolet colors.
Butterflies also bask in the bright sun because they cannot fly with a body temperature below 85°F. Flight time affects feeding, mating, and egg laying productivity. Therefore, they must orient their wings, often colored black near the body for heat absorption, toward the sun. Because moths cannot undertake this procedure during night, they have adopted the practice of shivering in order to warm their bodies enough to fly.
Planning the Landscape
Several key elements must be provided for success in the construction of your butterfly garden. Growing nectar plants is the first essential component. These are a primary food source for adults, and without them your garden will not attract nearly as many Lepidopterans. Nectar plants should be planted in large groups according to color. Butterflies recognize the blooms more quickly this way. Also, it is wise to select nectar plants that bloom over several seasons, so that a food source is provided over a longer period of time, increasing feeding activity and your observing opportunity. When planting nectar plants, provide plants of different height. Not only will your flower garden look more organized, it will give both you and the butterflies a wider visual picture of the colorful blossoms.
The second essential component to provide is plants for Lepidopteran larvae. This will also keep the adults in your area. However, most larvae do not feed on the same plants as adults; therefore you must provide appropriate vegetation for females to lay their eggs upon. This is an excellent way to incorporate additional native plants into your landscaping theme, because most larval-food plants are native plants. You should note that many larval-food plants are unsuitable for a showy flower border and would serve better as a large collection in a separate area of your yard.
Attracting Lepidopterans (butterflies, moths, and skippers) to your garden
A successful butterfly garden will have:
• A mixture of perrenials and annuals, including native plants.
• Nectar plants (such as marigolds, petunias, and asters).
• Plants for larvae (such as tomatoes and herbs).
• A sunny location.
• Shelter from the wind.
• Other features, such as mud puddles or fruit, to attract Lepidopterans.
• Few insecticides and no bugzappers.
One possibility is to maintain an herb garden. Herbs such as dill, fennel, parsley, and chives provide excellent food for larvae and produce enough foliage to be harvested for your kitchen. Some vegetable crops such as tomatoes, cabbage, and broccoli are larval food plants. Consider sacrificing some of these from your garden for your Lepidopteran visitors. Clover, which is both a nectar and larval-food plant, may occur in your yard already. When seeded to an area that is not mowed, clover will become a beautiful flowering addition to your garden. Many colorful species are now available at your garden center.
In order to have a successful butterfly garden, you must locate your plantings in a sunny location. This is important for both plants and butterflies. Most blooming plants need exposure to lots of sun to undergo enough photosynthesis to maintain nectar output. Also, butterflies need an open, sheltered area for basking in the sun in order to raise their body temperatures enough to fly. Egg development is also inhibited by cooler temperatures.
Shelter is another essential ingredient for your garden. Taller plants and delicate butterflies need protection from strong gusts of wind. Cooling winds lower the body temperature of butterflies and limit blooming time of flowering plants. Shelter can be wind breaks in the form of deciduous plants, conifers, or even heat absorbing rock fences. Vining plants on fences can serve a dual role as both shelter and a food source when species such as blackberries, Dutchman’s pipe, and Japanese honeysuckle are planted. Regardless of the type of shelter used, it should be located on the north and west sides of your garden to block the colder winds.
Components other than plants can be used to attract Lepidopterans to your yard. Try using other attractants such as mud puddles, wet sand, fruit, sap, manure, or even carrion. There are also tried and true moth “brews” that can be made from simple ingredients and painted on tree trunks to allow you to get a closer look at the often unseen night flying moths. This technique is called “sugaring.” Most recipes simply consist of mashed, fermented fruit, yeast, and alcohol. Mashed bananas and a small amount of stale beer alone will work extremely well. When trying to observe or photograph moths at night, keep in mind that they are usually inactive on full moon evenings yet prefer hot, humid nights before a storm. Also, moths seem to have an affinity for white flowers and those emitting their fragrances at night. Intensely bright lights will drive them away whereas a simple flashlight filtered with a red, yellow, or even a paper-towel lens will not disturb them very much. Some moths remain relatively active through November.
When trying to attract insects to your yard, the broadscale use of insecticides is inappropriate. Additionally, bugzappers, even though they are intended to control mosquitoes, will mainly attract and destroy male moths. Therefore, these control measures should not be a part of your landscaping plan. As an alternative control measure, pheromone traps are now available, and will successfully remove the males of many unwanted pests from your yard.
When landscaping to attract Lepidopterans, keep in mind these principles for formulating your garden plan. Be sure to mix perennials and annuals. Annuals bloom for one season only and may have delayed blooming if grown from seed. Perennials, however, already have established roots and tend to bloom within a predictable time frame. Some perennials may be annuals if they cannot survive the winter temperatures in your area. Winter mulching may provide the extra protection that they need from the cold. Use native plants whenever possible because the Lepidopterans are already familiar with these species and have had success with them in the past. In fact, butterfly declines are a direct result of loss of prime habitat that consists of native plant species. Pollination of many native plant species requires specific adult Lepidopterans for the successful reproduction of that species. Native plants are also beautiful, winter hardy, resistant to disease, low maintenance, and an important part of our regional biodiversity.
|Plant type:||S = Short|
M = Medium
T = Tall
|TRE = Tree|
SHR = Shrub
VIN = Vine
|AN = Annual|
BI = Biennial
PR = Perennial
|Origin:||E = Exotic||N = Native|
|Blooming Season:||E = Early|
M = Middle
L = Late
|SP = Spring|
SU = Summer
AU = Autumn
|WI - Winter|
|Height/Width:||FT. = Feet|
|Hardiness:||1-11 = Hardiness Zones|
|Sun:||F = Full|
S = Shade
|P = Partial|
ALL = All exposures
|Moisture:||D = Dry|
W = Wet
|M = Moist|
WD = Well drained
|Soil:||ALL = Broad Ranges|
C = Clayey
|L = Loamy|
S = Sandy
|Color:||BLU = Blue|
LAV = Lavender
PIK = Pink
ROS = Rose
WHT = White
|BRW = Brown|
MAN = Many colors
PUR = Purple
TAN = Tan
YEL = Yellow
|GRE = Green|
ORE = Orange
RED = Red
VIO = Violet
|* = Larval food plant also|
|Anise or Anise-Hyssop|
|AN||E||LSU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42864||F||MD||SL||BLU|
|AN||N||SU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42863||F||MD||SL||MAN|
Rudbeckia hirta pulcherrima
|AN||N||MSU-MA||3 FT.||2 FT.||42833||FP||M||ALL||YEL|
|AN||E||ESU-LAU||1.5 FT.||1 FT.||42803||PF||M||L||RED|
|AN||E||SU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42802||FP||MD||SL||BLU|
|AN||E||SU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42774||FP||M||SL||BLU|
Cosmos bipinnatus, ‘Sulphureus’
|AN||E||E-LSU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42803||F||D||ALL||YEL|
|AN||E||LSP||3 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||MD||ALL||GRE|
|AN||E||ESU-EAU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42834||FP||M||L||WHT|
|Four O’Clock, Marvel of Peru|
|PR||E||MSU-MAU||2.5 FT.||3 FT.||42925||FP||M||ALL||ROS|
Pelargonium x hortorum
|AN||E||LSP-MSU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42803||FP||MW||L||RED|
|AN||E||SU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||MD||SL||MAN|
|AN||E||LSP-SU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42802||FP||M||SL||LAV|
|AN||E||E-LSU||10 FT.||8 FT.||42957||PF||M||L||YEL|
|AN||E||SU-EAU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42803||F||MD||L||YEL|
|AN||E||SU-EAU||1.5 FT.||2 FT.||42803||F||MD||L||YEL|
|AN||E||MSP||2 FT.||1.5 FT||42926||FP||MD||L||ORE|
|AN||E||SU||7 FT.||3 FT.||42865||F||MD||L||ORE|
|AN||E||SU-LAU||.5 FT.||1 FT.||42864||FP||MD||SL||MAN|
|AN||E||SP||1 FT.||1 FT.||42802||FP||M||L||GRE|
|AN||E||SP-AU||1.5 FT.||1 FT.||42864||FP||M||L||MAN|
Petunia x hybrida
|AN||E||SU-EAU||1.5 FT.||2 FT.||42774||FP||M||SL||MAN|
|AN,PR||N||SP-ESU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||M||L||MAN|
|Scarlet star glory|
|AN||N||ESU-MAU||8 FT.||2 FT.||42864||F||MD||L||RED|
|Scarlet sage, salvia|
|AN||E||SU||2.5 FT.||1 FT.||42803||FP||MD||L||RED|
|AN||E||SU||5 FT.||4 FT.||42803||FP||MD||L||ROS|
|AN||N||ESU-EAU||3 FT.||1.5 FT.||42834||F||MD||ALL||YEL|
|AN||E||LSP-MAU||8 FT.||8 FT.||42864||FP||MW||L||PIK|
|AN||E||SU||1 FT.||1 FT.||42834||FP||MD||L||WHT|
|AN||E||LSP-SU||1.5 FT.||1.5 FT.||42834||FP||MD||ALL||RED|
|AN||N||ESU-AU||.5 FT.||1 FT.||42833||SP||WM||SL||PIK|
|AN||N||ESU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42803||S||WM||L||PIK|
|VerbenaVerbena hybrida||AN||E||SP-AU||1 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||M||SL||MAN|
|AN||E||MS-EAU||1 FT.||1 FT.||42863||FP||MD||SL||WHT|
|AN||E||SU-LAU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42834||FP||M||L||MAN|
|Adam’s Needle Yucca|
|PR||N||SU||3 FT.||8 FT.||42896||FP||MD||ALL||WHT|
Aquilegia canadensis, hybrids
|PR||N||MSP||3 FT.||2 FT.||42803||PF||M||L||MAN|
|Asters, New England*|
Aster novaae-angliae, A. belgii
|PR||N||LSU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42833||FP||MD||L||MAN|
|PR||N||LSU-EAU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42834||FP||MD||L||BLU|
|PR||E||MSU-EAU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42801||F||WD||SL||PIK|
|PR||N||SLP-SU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42895||F||D||SL||PIK|
|PR||N||SU-MAU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42834||F||MD||SL||ORE|
‘Cornflower, bachelor button’
|PR||E||MSP-MSU||4 FT.||1 FT.||42802||F||WMD||L||BLU|
|Common evening primrose|
|PR||N||ESU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42802||F||WM||ALL||WHT|
|CoreopsisCoreopsis auriculata||PR||N||ESU-EAU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||MD||SL||YEL|
Dendranthema x grandiflora
|PR||E||AU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42863||FP||M||SL||MAN|
|BI||E||SU||1.5 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||MD||L||RED|
|PR||N||ESP||1.5 FT.||.5 FT||42834||FP||M||SL||YEL|
|Dame’s violet, Sweet rocket|
|BI||E||SP||4 FT.||2 FT.||42802||PS||MD||ALL||PUR|
|PR||E||LSU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42803||FP||D||ALL||BRW|
|PR||N||SU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42833||FP||MD||L||WHT|
|Dogbane, Siberian |
|PR||E||SU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42773||FP||MD||L||WHT|
|PR||N||MSU-EAU||4 FT.||3 FT.||42802||PF||MD||SL||RED|
|BI||N||LSP-SU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42774||F||M||L||BLU|
|Foxglove, purple |
|BI||E||LSP-MSU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42834||FP||M||LS||PUR|
|Gaillardia, Blanket flower|
Gaillardia x grandiflora
|PR||N||SU-AU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42804||F||MD||SL||RED|
|Garden sage |
|PR||E||ESU-MSU||1 FT.||1 FT.||42833||FP||MD||ALL||BLU|
|PR||N||LSU-MAU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42864||FP||MD||SL||PUR|
“Prairie Button Snakeroot”
|PR||N||LSU-MAU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42834||FP||D||L||LAV|
|Gayfeather; tall, spiked|
Liatris scariosa, L. spicata
|PR||N||LSU-MAU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||M||SL||PUR|
|Globe thistle, dwarf|
|PR||E||SU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42802||FP||MD||SL||BLU|
|PR||N||LSU-MAU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42774||F||DM||ALL||YEL|
|PR||E||ESP-MSP||.5 FT.||.5 FT.||42802||F||M||SL||BLU|
|BI||E||SU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42864||F||MD||ALL||MAN|
|PR||E||LSP-MSU||2 FT.||1.5 FT.||42834||F||D||ALL||BLU|
|PR||N||SU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42834||F||MD||L||WHT|
|Iris; German, Dutch|
Iris germanica, I. xiphium
|PR||E||SP-ESU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42863||FP||MD||L||MAN|
|PR||N||SU||3 FT.||5 FT.||42833||F||MD||L||PUR|
|PR||E||SU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42834||FP||MW||L||WHT|
|PR||E||SU||6 FT.||4 FT.||42862||FP||M||L||YEL|
|PR||N||LSP-MSU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42803||ALL||MD||L||WHT|
|PR||E||MSU-LSU||6 FT.||1 FT.||42833||FP||M||SL||MAN|
|PR||E||SU||2 FT.||3 FT.||42803||FP||MD||L||ORE|
|PR||N||LSU||6 FT.||1 FT.||42833||F||MD||ALL||YEL|
|PR||N||LSP-LSU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42802||FP||MD||ALL||GRE|
|PR||N||LSP-SU||5 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||M||ALL||WHT|
|PR||N||LSP-ESU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42834||FP||M||ALL||ROS|
|PR||N||SU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42803||FP||MW||ALL||WHT|
|Mound Lily Yucca|
|PR||N||SU||6 FT.||8 FT.||42896||FP||MD||ALL||WHT|
|PR||E||LSP-MSU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42802||F||MD||L||BLU|
|PR||N||EAU||2.5 FT.||1 FT.||42803||FP||MD||ALL||LAV|
|PR||E||LSP-ESU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42802||F||MW||SL||MAN|
|PR||N||MSU-AU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||M||ALL||YEL|
|PR||N||SP||2 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||D||L||YEL|
|PR||E||MSP||3 FT.||4 FT.||42802||FP||MD||L||MAN|
|Pearly everlasting, cudweed|
|PR||N||LSU-EAU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42802||F||MD||L||WHT|
Mentha piperita, etc.
|PR||E||SU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42864||FP||MW||L||WHT|
|PR||E||SU||1.5 FT.||1 FT.||42832||FP||M||L||PIK|
|PR||E||SU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42801||F||MW||SL||BLU|
|Prairie blazing star|
|PR||N||SU-EAU||4 FT.||1 FT.||42803||FP||M||L||LAV|
|PR||N||SU-EAU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42833||F||MD||ALL||LAV|
|PR||N||SU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42802||F||MD||ALL||PUR|
|Queen Anne’s lace* “Wild carrot” |
|BI||E||SU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42833||FP||MD||ALL||WHT|
|PR||E||ESP-ESU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||MW||SL||RED|
|PR||E||ESP||1 FT.||1.5 FT.||42832||FP||WD||SL||WHT|
|PR||E||ESP-MSU||2 FT.||3 FT.||42895||F||M||L||BLU|
|PR||E||ESU||1 FT.||1 FT.||42833||FP||W||L||BLU|
Leucanthemum x superbum
|PR||E||ESU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42863||FP||M||L||WHT|
|PR||N||MSU-AU||4 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||MD||LS||YEL|
|PR||E||LSP-SU||2.5 FT.||1 FT.||42803||F||MD||L||MAN|
|PR||N||LSP||2 FT.||2 FT.||42803||S||MW||L||WHT|
|Sedum, showy stonecrop*|
|PR||E||LSU-LAU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42803||FP||D||SL||ROS|
|PR||N||SP||.5 FT.||.5 FT||42833||S||M||ALL||VIO|
|PR||E||ESU-EAU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42803||FP||MD||ALL||ORE|
|PR||E||SU||1 FT.||1 FT.||42863||F||MD||SL||PIK|
|PR||N||ESP-SU||4 FT.||1 FT.||42895||F||MW||SL||YEL|
|PR||E||SU||3 FT.||1 FT.||42864||F||WD||SL||ORE|
|PR||N||SU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42802||F||WM||L||PIK|
|PR||N||SU||3 FT.||5 FT.||42833||F||MD||ALL||PUR|
|PR||N||SU-EAU||3 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||MD||SL||YEL|
|Wild marjoram, Oreganum|
|PR||E||MSU-LSU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||MW||SL||PIK|
|Wild bergamot or Beebalm|
|PR||N||SU||3 FT.||6 FT.||42834||FP||M||L||RED|
|PR||N||E-MSU||2 FT.||1 FT.||42833||F||MD||L||WHT|
|LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL TREES AND SHRUBS|
|SSHR||N||ESU||10 FT.||10 FT.||42926||FP||M||L||PIK|
|TRE||N||ESP||80 FT.||40 FT.||42804||F||D||ALL||WHT|
|TRE||N||ESP-LAU||50 FT.||50 FT.||42863||F||D||ALL||GRE|
|STRE||N||ESP||60 FT.||40 FT.||42865||F||MW||L||GRE|
|SSHR||N||LSU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42775||F||D||ALL||PUR|
|STRE||N||ESP||50 FT.||40 FT.||42835||FP||D||ALL||WHT|
|VIN||N||SU||20 FT.||10 FT.||42926||FP||MD||SL||LAV|
|TRE||N||ESU||60 FT.||40 FT.||42834||FP||WM||L RED/GRE|
Brassica oleracea capitata
|AN||E||SP||1 FT.||1 FT.||42775||F||M||SL||MAN|
|AN||N||LSU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42863||F||D||SL||WHT|
|AN||E||ESU||7 FT.||2 FT.||42802||F||M||L||WHT|
Brassica oleracea italica
|AN||E||SP||3 FT.||2 FT.||42775||F||M||SL||GRE|
|AN||N||LS-EAU||1.5 FT.||1.5 FT.||42833||F||D||SL||PUR|
Malva lavantera thuringiaca
|AN||E||SU||5 FT.||3 FT.||42863||F||MD||ALL||ROS|
|AN||N||SU-AU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||M||CL||PIK|
|AN||N||SU-EAU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42834||F||D||ALL||YEL|
|AN||E||SU||5 FT.||3 FT.||42804||F||M||L YEL/RED|
|PR||E||SLP-ESU||2.5 FT.||3.5 FT.||42833||F||M||L||LAV|
|PR||E||LS-EAU||1.5 FT.||1.5 FT.||42833||F||S||SL||PUR|
|PR/VIN||E||SPR||15 FT.||10 FT.||42833||F||M||SL||GRE|
|PR/AN||N||SU-AU||2 FT.||2 FT.||42833||F||MW||CL||PIK|
|Partridge pea, showy|
|PR||N||SU-EAU||3 FT.||3 FT.||42804||F||D||ALL||YEL|
|Sorrel, rosy canaigre|
|PR||N||SP||3 FT.||3 FT.||42833||F||D||ALL||ROS|
|PR||E||LSP||3 FT.||3 FT.||42803||F||D||ALL||YEL|
Native Plant Suppliers
Aimers Quality Seeds & Bulbs
81 Temperance St.
Canada L4G 2R1
Boothe Hill Wildflowers
23 B Boothe Hill
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
W. Atlee Burpee Co.
300 Park Ave.
Warminster, PA 18974
H.G. Hastings Co.
P.O. Box 115535
Atlanta, GA 30310
P.O. Box 407
Bolinas, CA 94924
Moon Mountain Wildflowers
P.O. Box 34
Morro Bay, CA 93443
1111 Dawson Rd.
Chapel Hill, NC 27516
5737 Fisher Lane
Greenback, TN 37742
Park Seed Co.
P.O. Box 46
Greenwood, SC 29647
P.O. Box 306-R
Westfield, WI 53964
Sunlight Gardens Inc.
Route 1, Box 600-OG
Andersonville, TN 37705
Sunshine Farm and Nursery
Route 1, Box 4030
Clinton, OK 73601
Brewer, Jo, Dave Winter. 1986. Butterflies and moths: a companion to your field guide. Prentice Hall Press, N.Y. 194 pp.
Dirr, Michael A. 1990. Manual of woody landscape plants. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign. 937 pp.
Henderson, Carrol L. 1987. Landscaping for wildlife. Minnesota Dep’t. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. 144 pp.
Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 1177 pp.
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Stephanie A. Smith
Entomology and Wildlife Extension
Former Extension Wildlife Specialist
Extension Consumer Horticulturist