Landscaping to Attract Butterflies, Moths and Skippers

February 2017


Butterflies, Moths, and Skippers
Butterflies, moths, and skippers are some of the most beautiful of all insects. Their striking appearance adds both color and activity to the most pleasing of landscapes. They may also be observed more easily and closely than other species of wildlife. Moths expand the enjoyment time of your garden because they are active primarily during the night, while butterflies and skippers are active during the day.
Butterflies, skippers, and moths belong to the order Lepidoptera. Virtually all members of this order are instrumental in pollinating plants, some specific to a single plant species. Lepidopterans should be conserved and managed because they are an essential component of both the animal food chain and the reproductive process of plants. Locally, many songbirds, reptiles, and amphibians depend upon these insects to survive. The best way to conserve Lepidopterans is to provide suitable habitats. This publication was developed to provide property owners or tenants the information necessary to create these habitats with the greatest ease.

Lepidopteran Physical Characteristics
A key method of determining Lepidopteran identity is by observing antenna shape. A butterfly will have knobby or clubbed looking antennae while a moth’s antennae will be feathery, plumed, or threadlike. The antennae of the skipper will appear to be clubbed, yet with a feathery “hook” at the end. The skipper appears to be an intermediate group between the butterfly and moth. Remember, not all moths are active only at night. The Hummingbird Sphinx moth, for example, feeds during the day, and from a distance, looks and sounds like a hummingbird.

Antenna Shapes

 

Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus) Photo by Ron Masters

Lepidopterans are known for their ability to undergo metamorphosis — a change in form and function. This change occurs through the completion of four stages. First, the butterfly begins as a fertilized egg. It is laid inconspicuously in a group or singly, usually under a leaf, around a stem, or in leaf litter. Depending upon environmental conditions, the egg will hatch in about five to ten days. The next stage is the larval or caterpillar stage. During this time, the caterpillar feeds on plant material to gain enough energy reserves to sustain itself through the next stage of development. Next, the pupa or chrysalis stage occurs when the caterpillar finds a suitable plant on which to weave a small silk patch for attachment and complete growth of a pupal skin.
The chrysalis matures in about two weeks. At that time, the adult butterfly emerges with wet, folded wings. After drying, the wings are ready for flight. The adult lifespan, barring predation, is about six days for males and nine days for females. Silk moths such as the beautiful Luna moth, do not feed as adults. Rather, their sole function as adults is to find partners and mate.
Lepidopterans display their most noticeable attributes by reflecting light. Light is reflected by the thousands of tiny scales that cover their four wings. Each scale grows from a single cell and has several important functions. Scales rub off easily, aiding the butterfly in escape from predators. Scales also enable the butterfly to absorb light, which is essential for maintaining body temperature. Some scales, usually in males, produce scents during courtship. Finally, scales produce the brilliant or sometimes dull colors of butterflies and moths. The colors can be the result of pigmentation or scale structure. Often, scales are shaped like small prisms that diffract light into iridescent colors. Some scales that appear to be white are actually hollow and clear, allowing light to be reflected and scattered. Structurally created colors are enhanced by fluttering of the wings, which continually changes both the angle of light and intensity of reflection.
Lepidopteran wings display some colors of light beyond the human range of visual perception. Ultraviolet rays are crucial for survival because they guide feeding and reproductive behavior. Lepidopterans use ultraviolet rays as visual cues to locate nectar in flowering plants. Unseen to humans, some blossoms have “directions” to nectar painted in ultraviolet light upon the petals of the flower. Males use ultraviolet light during courtship by reflecting it from their rapidly fluttering wings. This display action produces a kaleidoscope effect intended to catch the attention of a nearby female.
Lepidopterans are adept at detecting plants with suitable nectar in two ways, other than visually. First, they use their antennae, which serve as the primary olfactory receptor, to sample the essence of a plant. Second, on some female butterflies, their two front legs have adapted for the purpose of “tasting” a plant to determine if it is the correct species on which to lay eggs.
Some species of butterflies exhibit cryptic, or camouflaging colors. Moths, for instance, may be dull across all body surfaces while some butterflies have only a dull appearance on the underside of their wings. In this instance, the brilliant colors above function to communicate with other butterflies while the plain sides function to hide them from predators. Some butterflies mimic color patterns of poisonous butterflies, and others may have false antennae on the posterior end of their body, giving them a higher chance of surviving a “frontal” predator attack.

Luna Moth (Actias luna). Photo by Mike Masters

 

Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui), puddling. Photo by Ron Masters

 

Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Photo by Stephanie Smith

 

Black Swallowtail (Papilio troilus). Photo by Ron Masters

Behavior
In addition to interesting physical characteristics, Lepidopterans also exhibit several unique behavioral characteristics, one of which is puddling. This occurs when many butterflies or moths gather around a puddle of water or a damp area from which water has evaporated and created a concentration of minerals that they need. Sodium is the primary attractant. For this reason they can be seen gathering on carrion, animal feces, urination sites, and old campfires. Males exhibit this behavior more than females because they require additional sodium for reproduction.
Another behavior exhibited by Lepidopterans is that of courting. Males, while patrolling or perching, are drawn to females by detection of their movement and pheromones. When they have located a potential mate, males begin fluttering their wings conspicuously and displaying their ultraviolet colors.
Butterflies also bask in the bright sun because they cannot fly with a body temperature below 85°F. Flight time affects feeding, mating, and egg laying productivity. Therefore, they must orient their wings, often colored black near the body for heat absorption, toward the sun. Because moths cannot undertake this procedure during night, they have adopted the practice of shivering in order to warm their bodies enough to fly.

Planning the Landscape
Several key elements must be provided for success in the construction of your butterfly garden. Growing nectar plants is the first essential component. These are a primary food source for adults, and without them your garden will not attract nearly as many Lepidopterans. Nectar plants should be planted in large groups according to color. Butterflies recognize the blooms more quickly this way. Also, it is wise to select nectar plants that bloom over several seasons, so that a food source is provided over a longer period of time, increasing feeding activity and your observing opportunity. When planting nectar plants, provide plants of different height. Not only will your flower garden look more organized, it will give both you and the butterflies a wider visual picture of the colorful blossoms.
The second essential component to provide is plants for Lepidopteran larvae. This will also keep the adults in your area. However, most larvae do not feed on the same plants as adults; therefore you must provide appropriate vegetation for females to lay their eggs upon. This is an excellent way to incorporate additional native plants into your landscaping theme, because most larval-food plants are native plants. You should note that many larval-food plants are unsuitable for a showy flower border and would serve better as a large collection in a separate area of your yard.


Attracting Lepidopterans (butterflies, moths, and skippers) to your garden

A successful butterfly garden will have:
•    A mixture of perrenials and annuals, including native plants.
•    Nectar plants (such as marigolds, petunias, and asters).
•    Plants for larvae (such as tomatoes and herbs).
•    A sunny location.
•    Shelter from the wind.
•    Other features, such as mud puddles or fruit, to attract Lepidopterans.
•    Few insecticides and no bugzappers.


One possibility is to maintain an herb garden. Herbs such as dill, fennel, parsley, and chives provide excellent food for larvae and produce enough foliage to be harvested for your kitchen. Some vegetable crops such as tomatoes, cabbage, and broccoli are larval food plants. Consider sacrificing some of these from your garden for your Lepidopteran visitors. Clover, which is both a nectar and larval-food plant, may occur in your yard already. When seeded to an area that is not mowed, clover will become a beautiful flowering addition to your garden. Many colorful species are now available at your garden center.
In order to have a successful butterfly garden, you must locate your plantings in a sunny location. This is important for both plants and butterflies. Most blooming plants need exposure to lots of sun to undergo enough photosynthesis to maintain nectar output. Also, butterflies need an open, sheltered area for basking in the sun in order to raise their body temperatures enough to fly. Egg development is also inhibited by cooler temperatures.
Shelter is another essential ingredient for your garden. Taller plants and delicate butterflies need protection from strong gusts of wind. Cooling winds lower the body temperature of butterflies and limit blooming time of flowering plants. Shelter can be wind breaks in the form of deciduous plants, conifers, or even heat absorbing rock fences. Vining plants on fences can serve a dual role as both shelter and a food source when species such as blackberries, Dutchman’s pipe, and Japanese honeysuckle are planted. Regardless of the type of shelter used, it should be located on the north and west sides of your garden to block the colder winds.
Components other than plants can be used to attract Lepidopterans to your yard. Try using other attractants such as mud puddles, wet sand, fruit, sap, manure, or even carrion. There are also tried and true moth “brews” that can be made from simple ingredients and painted on tree trunks to allow you to get a closer look at the often unseen night flying moths. This technique is called “sugaring.” Most recipes simply consist of mashed, fermented fruit, yeast, and alcohol. Mashed bananas and a small amount of stale beer alone will work extremely well. When trying to observe or photograph moths at night, keep in mind that they are usually inactive on full moon evenings yet prefer hot, humid nights before a storm. Also, moths seem to have an affinity for white flowers and those emitting their fragrances at night. Intensely bright lights will drive them away whereas a simple flashlight filtered with a red, yellow, or even a paper-towel lens will not disturb them very much. Some moths remain relatively active through November.
When trying to attract insects to your yard, the broadscale use of insecticides is inappropriate. Additionally, bugzappers, even though they are intended to control mosquitoes, will mainly attract and destroy male moths. Therefore, these control measures should not be a part of your landscaping plan. As an alternative control measure, pheromone traps are now available, and will successfully remove the males of many unwanted pests from your yard.
When landscaping to attract Lepidopterans, keep in mind these principles for formulating your garden plan. Be sure to mix perennials and annuals. Annuals bloom for one season only and may have delayed blooming if grown from seed. Perennials, however, already have established roots and tend to bloom within a predictable time frame. Some perennials may be annuals if they cannot survive the winter temperatures in your area. Winter mulching may provide the extra protection that they need from the cold. Use native plants whenever possible because the Lepidopterans are already familiar with these species and have had success with them in the past. In fact, butterfly declines are a direct result of loss of prime habitat that consists of native plant species. Pollination of many native plant species requires specific adult Lepidopterans for the successful reproduction of that species. Native plants are also beautiful, winter hardy, resistant to disease, low maintenance, and an important part of our regional biodiversity.

 

SYMBOL KEY        
Plant type: S = Short
M = Medium
T = Tall
TRE = Tree
SHR = Shrub
VIN = Vine
AN = Annual
BI = Biennial
PR = Perennial
Origin:E = Exotic N = Native
Blooming Season:E = Early
M = Middle
L = Late
SP = Spring
SU = Summer
AU = Autumn
WI - Winter
Height/Width:FT. = Feet
Hardiness:1-11 = Hardiness Zones
Sun:F = Full
S = Shade
P = Partial
ALL = All exposures
Moisture:D = Dry
W = Wet
M = Moist
WD = Well drained
Soil:ALL = Broad Ranges
C = Clayey
L = Loamy
S = Sandy
Color:BLU = Blue
LAV = Lavender
PIK = Pink
ROS = Rose
WHT = White
BRW = Brown
MAN = Many colors
PUR = Purple
TAN = Tan
YEL = Yellow
GRE = Green
ORE = Orange
RED = Red
VIO = Violet
* = Larval food plant also

 

Source: UDSA U.S. Plant Hardiness Zone Map

 

 

LEPIDOPTERAN-NECTAR ANNUALS          
Anise or Anise-Hyssop
Agastache foeniculum
AN E LSU 3 FT.1 FT.42864FMDSLBLU
Asters*
Aster spp.
ANN SU3 FT.3 FT.42863FMDSLMAN
Black-eyed Susan
Rudbeckia hirta pulcherrima
ANN MSU-MA3 FT.2 FT.42833FPMALLYEL
Begonia
‘Othello’
Begonia semperflorens
ANE ESU-LAU1.5 FT.1 FT.42803PFML RED
Borage
Boago officinalis
ANE SU3 FT.3 FT.42802FPMDSLBLU
Canterbury bells
Campanula medium
ANE SU3 FT.2 FT.42774FPMSLBLU
Cosmos
Cosmos bipinnatus, ‘Sulphureus’
ANE E-LSU3 FT.2 FT.42803FDALLYEL
Dill*
Anethum graveolens
ANE LSP3 FT.1 FT.42803FMDALLGRE
Flowering tobacco
Nicotiana alata
ANE ESU-EAU2 FT.2 FT.42834FPMLWHT
Four O’Clock, Marvel of Peru
Mirabilis jalapa
PRE MSU-MAU2.5 FT.3 FT.42925FPMALLROS
Geranium, zonal
Pelargonium x hortorum
ANE LSP-MSU2 FT.2 FT.42803FPMWLRED
Gladiolus
Gladiolus spp.
ANE SU3 FT.1 FT.42803FMDSLMAN
Heliotrope
Heliotropium arborescens
ANE LSP-SU2 FT.2 FT.42802FPMSLLAV
Lantana
Lantana camara
ANE E-LSU10 FT.8 FT.42957PFMLYEL
Marigold, african*
Tagetes erecta
ANE SU-EAU3 FT.2 FT.42803FMDLYEL
Marigold, french*
Tagetes patula
ANE SU-EAU1.5 FT.2 FT.42803FMDLYEL
Marigold, pot*
Calendula officinalis
ANE MSP2 FT.1.5 FT42926FPMDLORE
Mexican sunflower
Tithonia rotundifolia
ANE SU7 FT.3 FT.42865FMDLORE
Nasturtium*
Tropaeolum majus
ANE SU-LAU.5 FT.1 FT.42864FPMDSLMAN
Parsley*
Petroselinum crispum
ANE SP1 FT.1 FT.42802FPMLGRE
Pentas
Pentas lanceolota
ANE SP-AU1.5 FT.1 FT.42864FPMLMAN
Petunia
Petunia x hybrida
ANE SU-EAU1.5 FT.2 FT.42774FPMSLMAN
Phlox
Phlox spp.
AN,PRN SP-ESU3 FT.1 FT.42803FMLMAN
Scarlet star glory
“Cypress Vine”
Quamoclit coccinea
ANN ESU-MAU8 FT.2 FT.42864FMDLRED
Scarlet sage, salvia
Salvia splendens
ANE SU2.5 FT.1 FT.42803FPMDLRED
Spider flower
Cleome hasslerana
ANE SU5 FT.4 FT.42803FPMDLROS
Sunflower, dwarf*
Helianthus annuus
ANN ESU-EAU3 FT.1.5 FT.42834FMDALLYEL
Sweet pea
Lathyrus odoratus
ANE LSP-MAU8 FT.8 FT.42864FPMWLPIK
Sweet marjoram
Origanum marjorana
ANE SU1 FT.1 FT.42834FPMDLWHT
Sweet William
Dianthus barbatus
ANE LSP-SU1.5 FT.1.5 FT. 42834FPMDALLRED
Touch-me-not, pale
Impatiens balsamina
ANN ESU-AU.5 FT.1 FT.42833SPWMSLPIK
Touch-me-not, spotted
Spotted jewelweed
Impatiens capensis
ANN ESU2 FT.1 FT.42803SWMLPIK
VerbenaVerbena hybridaANE SP-AU1 FT.1 FT.42803FMSLMAN
Winter Savory
Satureja montana
ANE MS-EAU1 FT.1 FT.42863FPMDSLWHT
Zinnia
Zinnia elegans
ANE SU-LAU3 FT.1 FT.42834FPMLMAN
LEPIDOPTERAN-NECTAR BIENNIALS/PERENNIALS          
Adam’s Needle Yucca
Yucca filimentosa
PRN SU3 FT.8 FT.42896FPMDALLWHT
American columbine
Aquilegia canadensis, hybrids
PRN MSP3 FT.2 FT.42803PFMLMAN
Asters, New England*
Aster novaae-angliae, A. belgii
PRN LSU4 FT.2 FT.42833FPMD LMAN
Boneset
“Joe-Pye weed”
Eupatorium perfoliatum
PRN LSU-EAU3 FT.1 FT.42834FPMDLBLU
Bouncing bet
“Soapwort”
Saponaria officinalis
PRE MSU-EAU3 FT.3 FT.42801FWDSLPIK
Bush clover
Lespedeza capitata
PRN SLP-SU4 FT.2 FT.42895FDSLPIK
Butterfly weed*
Asclepias tuberosa
PRN SU-MAU2 FT.2 FT.42834FMDSLORE
Centaurea
‘Cornflower, bachelor button’
Centaurea macrocephlala
PRE MSP-MSU4 FT.1 FT.42802FWMDLBLU
Common evening primrose
Oenothera speciosa
PRN ESU2 FT.2 FT.42802FWMALLWHT
CoreopsisCoreopsis auriculataPRN ESU-EAU2 FT.1 FT.42803FMDSLYEL
Chrysanthemum
Dendranthema x grandiflora
PRE AU3 FT.3 FT.42863FPMSLMAN
Crimson clover*
Trifolium incarnatum
BI E SU1.5 FT.2 FT.42833FMDLRED
Daffodil
Narcissus spp.
PRN ESP1.5 FT..5 FT42834FPMSLYEL
Dame’s violet, Sweet rocket
Hesperis matronalis
BIE SP4 FT.2 FT.42802PSMDALLPUR
Docks*
Rumex spp.
PRE LSU2 FT.2 FT.42803FPDALLBRW
Dogbane, intermediate
Apocynum medium
PRN SU4 FT.2 FT.42833FPMDLWHT
Dogbane, Siberian
Apocynum sibiricum
PRE SU4 FT.2 FT.42773FPMDLWHT
Fireweed
Epilobium angustifolium
PRN MSU-EAU4 FT.3 FT.42802PFMDSLRED
Fleabane
Erigeron spp.
BIN LSP-SU2 FT.2 FT.42774FMLBLU
Foxglove, purple
Digitalis purpurea
BIE LSP-MSU3 FT.2 FT.42834FPMLSPUR
Gaillardia, Blanket flower
Gaillardia x grandiflora
PRN SU-AU2 FT.2 FT.42804FMDSLRED
Garden sage
Salvia officinalis
PRE ESU-MSU1 FT.1 FT.42833FPMDALLBLU
Gayfeather, dotted
Liatris punctata
PRN LSU-MAU2 FT.1 FT.42864FPMDSLPUR
Gayfeather, Kansas
“Prairie Button Snakeroot”
Liatris pycnostachya
PRN LSU-MAU2 FT.1 FT.42834FPDLLAV
Gayfeather; tall, spiked
Liatris scariosa, L. spicata
PRN LSU-MAU3 FT.1 FT.42803FMSLPUR
Globe thistle, dwarf
Echinops ritro
PRE SU4 FT.2 FT.42802FPMDSLBLU
Goldenrods
Solidago spp.
PRN LSU-MAU3 FT.2 FT.42774FDMALLYEL
Grape hyacinth
Muscari neglectum
PRE ESP-MSP.5 FT..5 FT.42802FMSLBLU
Hollyhock
Alcaea rosea
BIE SU3 FT.1 FT.42864FMDALLMAN
Hyssop
Hyssopus officinalis
PRE LSP-MSU2 FT.1.5 FT.42834FDALLBLU
Indian hemp
Apocynum cannabinum
PRN SU3 FT.2 FT.42834F MDLWHT
Iris; German, Dutch
Iris germanica, I. xiphium
PRE SP-ESU3 FT.1 FT.42863FPMDLMAN
Leadplant
Amorpha canescens
PRN SU3 FT.5 FT.42833FMDLPUR
Lemon balm
Melissa officinalis
PRE SU2 FT.2 FT.42834FPMWLWHT
Lovage
Levisticum officinale
PRE SU6 FT.4 FT.42862FPM LYEL
Lupine, wild*
Lupinus perennis
PRN LSP-MSU2 FT.2 FT.42803ALLMDLWHT
Madonna lily
Lilium candidum
PRE MSU-LSU6 FT.1 FT.42833FPMSLMAN
Maltese Cross
Lychnis chalcedonica
PRE SU2 FT.3 FT.42803FPMDLORE
Maximillian sunflower*
Helianthus maximiliani
PRN LSU6 FT.1 FT.42833FMDALLYEL
Milkweed, common*
Asclepias latifolia
PRN LSP-LSU3 FT.2 FT.42802FPMDALLGRE
Milkweed, prairie*
Asclepias viridis
PRN LSP-SU5 FT.2 FT.42833FMALLWHT
Milkweed, showy*
Asclepias speciosa
PRN LSP-ESU3 FT.3 FT.42834FPMALLROS
Milkweed, swamp*
Asclepias incarnata
PRN SU4 FT.2 FT.42803FPMWALLWHT
Mound Lily Yucca
Yucca gloriosa
PRN SU6 FT.8 FT.42896FPMDALLWHT
Mountain bluet
“Bachelor’s Button”
Centaurea montana
PRE LSP-MSU2 FT.1 FT.42802F MDLBLU
Obedient plant
Physostegia virginiana
PRN EAU2.5 FT.1 FT.42803FPMDALLLAV
Oriental poppy
Papavar orientale
PRE LSP-ESU3 FT.1 FT.42802FMWSLMAN
Oxeye sunflower*
Heliopsis helianthoides
PRN MSU-AU3 FT.1 FT.42803FMALLYEL
Ozark Sundrop
Oenothera macrocarpa
PRN SP2 FT.2 FT.42833FDLYEL
Peony, Garden
Paeonia latiflora
PRE MSP3 FT.4 FT.42802FPMDLMAN
Pearly everlasting, cudweed
Anaphalis margaritacea
PRN LSU-EAU2 FT.1 FT.42802FMDLWHT
Peppermints
Mentha piperita, etc.
PRE SU2 FT.2 FT.42864FPMWLWHT
Persian cornflower
Centaurea dealbata
PRE SU1.5 FT.1 FT.42832FPMLPIK
Pincushion flower
Scabiosa caucasica
PRE SU2 FT.1 FT.42801FMWSLBLU
Prairie blazing star
Liatris pycnostachya
PRN SU-EAU4 FT.1 FT.42803FPMLLAV
Prairie thistle*
Cirsium undulatum
PRN SU-EAU2 FT.1 FT.42833FMDALLLAV
Purple coneflower*
Echinacea purpurea
PRN SU4 FT. 2 FT.42802FMDALLPUR
Queen Anne’s lace* “Wild carrot”
Daucus carota
BIE SU2 FT.2 FT.42833FPMDALLWHT
Red Valerian
Centranthus ruber
PRE ESP-ESU3 FT.2 FT.42833FMWSLRED
Rock cress
Arabis caucasia
PRE ESP1 FT.1.5 FT.42832FPWDSLWHT
Rosemary
Rosemarinus officinalis
PRE ESP-MSU2 FT.3 FT.42895FMLBLU
Selfheal
Prunella grandiflora
PRE ESU1 FT.1 FT.42833FPWLBLU
Shasta Daisies
Leucanthemum x superbum
PRE ESU3 FT.3 FT.42863FPMLWHT
Showy sunflower*
Helianthus multiflorus
PRN MSU-AU4 FT.2 FT.42833FMDLSYEL
Snapdragon*
Antirrhinum majus
PRE LSP-SU2.5 FT.1 FT.42803FMDLMAN
Soloman’s seal
Polygonatum biflorum
PRN LSP2 FT.2 FT.42803SMWLWHT
Sedum, showy stonecrop*
Hylotelephium spectabile
PRE LSU-LAU2 FT.2 FT.42803FPDSLROS
Sweet Violet*
Viola odorata
PRN SP.5 FT..5 FT42833SMALLVIO
Tawny daylily
Hemerocallis fulva
PRE ESU-EAU3 FT.3 FT.42803FPMDALLORE
Thyme, common
Thymus vulgaris
PRE SU1 FT.1 FT.42863FMDSLPIK
Tickseed sunflower
“Western tickseed”
Bidens aristosa
PRN ESP-SU4 FT.1 FT.42895FMWSLYEL
Torch lily
Kniphofia uvaria
PRE SU3 FT.1 FT.42864FWDSLORE
Turtlehead*
Chelone glabra
PRN SU2 FT.1 FT.42802FWMLPIK
Vetches*
Vicia spp.
PRN SU3 FT.5 FT.42833FMDALLPUR
Western sunflower*
Helianthus occidentalis
PRN SU-EAU3 FT.2 FT.42833F MDSLYEL
Wild marjoram, Oreganum
Origanum vulgare
PRE MSU-LSU2 FT.2 FT.42833FMWSLPIK
Wild bergamot or Beebalm
Monarda didyma
PRN SU3 FT. 6 FT.42834FPMLRED
Yarrow
Achillea millefolium
PRN E-MSU2 FT.1 FT.42833FMDLWHT
LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL TREES AND SHRUBS          
Blueberry, “Rabbit-eye”
Vaccinium ashei
SSHRN ESU10 FT.10 FT.42926FPMLPIK
Cottonwood
Populus deltoides
TREN ESP80 FT.40 FT.42804FDALLWHT
Elm, winged
Ulmus alata
TREN ESP-LAU50 FT.50 FT.42863FDALLGRE
Hackberry
Celtis spp.
STREN ESP60 FT.40 FT.42865FMWLGRE
Leadplant
Amorpha canescens
SSHRN LSU3 FT.3 FT.42775FDALLPUR
Locust, black
Robinia pseudoacacia
STREN ESP50 FT.40 FT.42835FPDALLWHT
Passion vine
Passiflora incarnata
VINN SU20 FT.10 FT.42926FPMDSLLAV
Tulip tree
Liriodendron tulipifera
TREN ESU60 FT.40 FT.42834FPWML RED/GRE
LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL ANNUALS          
Cabbage, flowering
Brassica oleracea capitata
ANE SP1 FT.1 FT.42775FMSLMAN
Balsam, white
Gnaphalium obtusifolium
ANN LSU3 FT.3 FT.42863FDSLWHT
Beans
Phaseolus spp.
ANE ESU7 FT.2 FT.42802FMLWHT
Broccoli
Brassica oleracea italica
ANE SP3 FT.2 FT.42775FMSLGRE
Everlasting, cudweed
Gnaphalium purpureum
ANN LS-EAU 1.5 FT.1.5 FT.42833FDSLPUR
Mallow tree
Malva lavantera thuringiaca
ANE SU5 FT.3 FT.42863FMDALLROS
Smartweed
Polygonum spp.
ANN SU-AU2 FT.2 FT.42833FMCLPIK
Sneezeweed
Helenium spp.
ANN SU-EAU 2 FT.2 FT.42834FDALLYEL
Tomato
Solanum esculentum
ANE SU5 FT.3 FT.42804FML YEL/RED
LEPIDOPTERAN-LARVAL BIENNIALS/PERENNIALS          
Alfalfa
Medicago sativa
PRE SLP-ESU2.5 FT.3.5 FT.42833FMLLAV
False nettle
Boehmeria cylindrica
PRE LS-EAU1.5 FT.1.5 FT.42833FSSLPUR
Hops, common
Humulus lupulus
PR/VINE SPR15 FT.10 FT.42833FMSLGRE
Knotweed
Polygonum spp.
PR/ANN SU-AU2 FT.2 FT.42833FMWCLPIK
Partridge pea, showy
Cassia fasciculata
PRN SU-EAU3 FT.3 FT.42804FDALLYEL
Sorrel, rosy canaigre
Rumex hymenosepalus
PRN SP3 FT.3 FT.42833FDALLROS
Winter cress
Barbarea vulgaris
PRE LSP3 FT.3 FT.42803FDALLYEL

 

 

Native Plant Suppliers
Aimers Quality Seeds & Bulbs
81 Temperance St.
Aurora, ONT
Canada L4G 2R1

 

Boothe Hill Wildflowers

23 B Boothe Hill

Chapel Hill, NC 27514

W. Atlee Burpee Co.
300 Park Ave.
Warminster, PA 18974

 

H.G. Hastings Co.

P.O. Box 115535

Atlanta, GA 30310

Larner Seeds
P.O. Box 407
Bolinas, CA 94924

 

Moon Mountain Wildflowers

P.O. Box 34

Morro Bay, CA 93443

Niche Gardens
1111 Dawson Rd.
Chapel Hill, NC 27516

 

Native Gardens

5737 Fisher Lane

Greenback, TN 37742

Park Seed Co.
P.O. Box 46
Greenwood, SC 29647

 

Prairie Nursery

P.O. Box 306-R

Westfield, WI 53964

Sunlight Gardens Inc.
Route 1, Box 600-OG
Andersonville, TN 37705

 

Sunshine Farm and Nursery

Route 1, Box 4030

Clinton, OK 73601

References
Brewer, Jo, Dave Winter. 1986. Butterflies and moths: a companion to your field guide. Prentice Hall Press, N.Y. 194 pp.
Dirr, Michael A. 1990. Manual of woody landscape plants. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign. 937 pp.
Henderson, Carrol L. 1987. Landscaping for wildlife. Minnesota Dep’t. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. 144 pp.
Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 1177 pp.
Little, Elbert L. Jr. 1981. Forest trees of Oklahoma. Okla. State Dept. of Agriculture, Forestry Div. Publ. 1. Rev. ed. 12. 204 pp.
McCoy, Doyle. 1976. Roadside flowers of Oklahoma. Vols I, II. C and J Printing Co., Lawton. Vol I, 116 pp., Vol II, 60 pp.
Mitchell, Paul J. 1985. Perennial flowers and bulbs for Oklahoma. Oklahoma State University. Horticulture – Landscape Architecture Dept. HORT 4-2.
Perry, Frances. 1974. Simon and schuster’s complete guide to plants and flowers. Simon and Schuster, New York. 269pp.
Scott, James A. 1986. The butterflies of north america: a natural history and field guide. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford. 10-82.
Sedenko, Jerry. 1991. The butterfly garden. Villard Books, New York. 144 pp.
Still, Steven M. 1994. Manual of herbaceous ornamental plants. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign. 702 pp. Stokes, Donald and Lillian, Ernest Williams. 1991. The butterfly book: an easy guide to butterfly gardening, identification, and behavior. Little, Brown, and Company. 1-33.
Tilden, James W., Arthur Clayton Smith. A field guide to western butterflies. 1986. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 5-32.
Villiard, Paul. 1975. Moths and how to rear them. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 16, 232-235.
Whitcomb, Carl E. 1985. Know it and grow it. Vol. II. Lacebark Publications, Stillwater. 740 pp.
Xerces Society/Smithsonian Institution. 1990. Butterfly gardening: creating summer magic in your garden. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. 192 pp.

 

Stephanie A. Smith
Entomology and Wildlife Extension
Program Assistant

Ron Masters
Former Extension Wildlife Specialist

David Hillock
Extension Consumer Horticulturist

Tom Royer
Extension Entomologist

Don Arnold
Survey Entomologist

Mike Schnelle
Extension Horticulturist

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DASNR Extension Research CASNR
OCES  Contact
OCES
139 Agricultural Hall
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74074
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OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY