Management of Insect Pests in Rangeland and Pasture (pdf only)

June 2018


Arthropod pests of rangeland and pasture rarely become a serious economic problem. Many pest problems can be avoided by implementing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plan that includes the use of good pasture management practices, proper fertilization, mowing and optimal stocking rates. Pesticide applications should not replace the use of good pasture management practices and should not be applied as “preventative insurance” because it is rarely economically or environmentally justifiable.
The information herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.
Pesticide recommendations in this publication were correct as of the “Modified Date” but always check the label that came with the purchased insecticide for the most current rates and restrictions
The first name listed is the trade name of a product registered for use in corn for the listed pest. The name in (parentheses) listed below the trade name is the name of the active ingredient. The active ingredient name is provided because in many cases, there are other registered products containing the same active ingredient that may cost less, so producers should compare prices.
The number [in brackets] following a product is its Mode of Action number [MOA]. The more frequently insecticides with the same MOA are used, the more likely resistance will occur. This number provides an easy way to select different modes of action to avoid selecting for pests that are resistant to a certain mode of action.
Refer to the following OSU publications for additional information.

EPP-7196 Grasshopper Management in Rangeland, Pastures, and Crops
NREM-2869 Management Strategies for Rangeland and Introduced Pastures
NREM-2870 Drought Management Strategies
NREM-2875 Intensive Early Stocking
NREM-2882 Weed Control on Rangelands
NREM-2886 Stocking Rate Determination on Native Rangelands
PSS-2583 Choosing, Establishing and Managing Bermudagrass Varieties in Oklahoma
PSS-2585 Forage Legumes for Oklahoma
PSS-2594 Plan Grazing Management Using the Oklahoma Grazing Stick

Pest, Damage and Treatment ThresholdInsecticide FormulationRate of Product/AcreComments
Ants (including fire ants)
Ants range in size from 1/16 inches to nearly 1/2 inch in length and from light tan to black in color. These social insects live in a colony with thousands of workers. The two most important pest species for rangeland and pasture are the red imported fire ant and the red harvester ant.

Damage: Fire ants can be an irritant to cattle as sometimes clear large patches of grass as they feed.

Threshold: No threshold established.
Baits for Grazed LandIndividual mound broadcastFor all baits: Apply as a broadcast or individual mound treatment when ants are active and soil temperatures exceed 60 F. If treating individual mounds, estimate the mound density, and do not disturb the mound or apply the bait directly on the mound.
Amdro Pro [20A]
(hydramethylnon)
5 tbs/mound
1.0 to 1.5 lb./acre
0-day wait for grazing, 7-day wait for harvest.
Esteem [7C]
(pyriproxifen)
2 to 4 tbs/mound
1.5 to 2 lb/acre
0-day wait for grazing or 1 day for harvest. Repeat every 10 to 12 weeks as needed.
Extinguish [7a]
(s-methoprene)
3 to 5 tbs/mound
1 to 1.5 lb/acre
0-day wait for grazing or harvest. Repeat every 10 to 12 weeks as needed.they feed. Harvester ants
Extinguish Plus [7A]
(s-methoprene + hydramethylnon)
2 to 5 tbs/mound
1.5 lb per acre
0-day wait for grazing, 7-day wait for harvest.
Amdro Pro + Extinguish3-5 tbs/mound0.75 + 0.75 lb/acreMix baits thoroughly, 0-day wait for grazing, 7-day wait for harvest.
Additional Baits for Non-Grazed Land
Advion Fire Ant Bait [22A]
(Indoxacarb)
4 level tbs/mound
1.5 lb/acre
May be applied to grazed pastures.
Distance [7C]
1.0 to 1.5 lb/acre
1 to 4 tbs/mound1-day wait for harvest. Repeat after 12 to 16 weeks as needed.
Armyworm
Caterpillar can reach slightly over 1 inch. Dark green or brown with 5 stripes along body.

Damage: Feed on foliage, usually a problem in the spring.

Threshold: Get a wirecoat hanger, bend it into a hoop, place it on the ground, and count all sizes of fall armyworms in the hoop. Examine plants at several locations along the field margin as well as in the interior. The hoop covers about 2/3 of a square foot, so a threshold in pasture would be an average of two or three ½ inch-long larvae per hoop sample (3 to 4 per square foot).
Bacillus thuringiensis*See product label for specific rates.*All Bacillus thuringiensis products work best when applied to small caterpillars. Caterpillars cease feeding upon ingestion of product, but will take several days to die. 0-day waiting period.
Biobit XL Javelin WG Xen Tari [11B1, B2]
Baythroid XL [3]
(beta cyfluthrin)
1.6 to 1.9 fl oz
(0.013 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day waiting period.
Besiege [3,28]
(lambda cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole)
6.0 to 10.0 fl oz0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest, 7-day wait for last cutting of hay.
Blackhawk [5]
(spinosad)
1.1 to 2.2 oz
(0.025 to 0.05 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing, 3-day wait for harvest.
Coragen [28]
(chlorantraniliprole)
3.5 to 7.5 fl oz
(0.045 to 0.098 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Declare [3]
(gamma cyhalothrin)
1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(0.01 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing, 7-day wait for hay.
Karate w Zeon [3]
(lambda cyhalothrin)
1.28 to 1.92 fl oz
(0.2 to 0.3 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7-days for hay.
Lannate LV [1A]
(methomyl)
0.75 to 3 pt
(0.225 to 0.9 lb ai)
For Bermuda pasture ONLY. 7-day wait for grazing, 3 days for harvest.
Malathion 5EC [1B]
(malathion)
1.4 pt
(0.92 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Mustang MAXX [3]
(zeta cypermethrin)
2.8 to 4.0 fl oz/A
(0.0175 to 0.025 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Sevin 4F, XLR Plus [1A]
(carbaryl)
2 to 3 pt
(1 to 1.5 lb ai)
For improved pasture only: do not apply more than 2 applications per season and not more than once every 14 days. Sevin label states a 14 day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
Tombstone [3]
(cyfluthrin)
1.6 to 2.8 fl oz/A
(0.025 to 0.044 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Bermudagrass stem maggot
Immature stage of an introduced fly. Infests only bermudagrass and stargrass. Mature maggots yellow about 1/8 inch.

Damage: Feed on top node of grass stem. Burrow into shoot, killing leaves abovefeeding zone.

Threshold: Plan for early harvest when infestations reach 10 to 20 percent of plants showing damage. Harvest and remove bales as soon as possible. Spray with registered insecticide 7 days later.
Baythroid XL [3]
(beta cyfluthrin)
1.6 to 1.9 fl oz
(0.013 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day waiting period.
Besiege [3,28]
(lambda cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole)
8.0 to 9.0 fl oz0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest, 7-day wait for last cutting of hay.
Declare [3]
(gamma cyhaolthrin)
1.02 tp 1.54 fl oz
(0.01 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing, 7-day wait for hay.
Karate w Zeon [3]
(lambda cyhalothrin)
1.28 to 1.92 fl oz
(0.2 to 0.3 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7 days for hay.
Mustang MAXX [3]
(zeta cypermethrin)
2.8 to 4.0 fl oz/A
(0.0175 to 0.025 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Fall armyworm
Large striped caterpillar that reaches 1.5 inches when mature. Has an inverted “Y” in the front of its head.

Damage: Feed on foliage. Typically a problem in the fall, feeding on the emerged heads.

Threshold: Get a wire coat hanger, bend it into a hoop, place it on the ground, and count all sizes of fall armyworms in the hoop. Examine plants at several locations along the field margin as well as in the interior. The hoop covers about 2/3 of a square foot, so a threshold in pasture would be an average of two or three ½ inch - long larvae per hoop sample (3 to 4 per square foot).
Bacillus thuringiensis*See product label for specific rates.Use higher rate for heavy infestations or when plant growth is rapid. A contact insecticide may be added for enhanced control of heavy populations. 0-daywaiting period for grazing or harvesting.
Biobit XL Javelin WG
Xen Tari [11B1, B2]
Baythroid XL [3]
(beta cyfluthrin)
2.6 to 2.9 fl oz
(0.02 to 0.022 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Besiege [3,28]
(lambda cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole)
6.0 to 10.0 fl oz0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest, 7-day wait for last cutting of hay.
Blackhawk [5]
(spinosad)
1.1 to 2.2 oz
(0.025 to 0.05 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing, 3-day wait for harvest.
Coragen (28)
(chlorantraniliprole)
3.5-5.0 fl oz
(0.045-0.065 lb ai)
0-day waiting for grazing or harvest.
Declare [3]
(gamma cyhalothrin)
1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(0.01 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7-days for hay.
Karate w Zeon [3]1.28 to 1.92 fl oz
(0.2 to 0.3 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing, 7 days for hay.
(lambda cyhalothrin)
Lannate SP [1A]
(methomyl)
0.25 to 1.0 lb
(0.225 to 0.9 lb ai)
For Bermuda pasture ONLY. 7-day wait for grazing, 3 days for harvest.
Malathion [1B]1.4 pt/A0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Mustang MAXX [3]
(zeta cypermethrin)
2.8 to 4.0 fl oz
(0.0175 to 0.025 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Sevin 4F, XLR Plus [1A]
(carbaryl)
2 to 3 pt
(1 to 1.5 lb ai)
For improved pasture only: do not apply more than 2 applications per season and not more than once every 14 days. Sevin label states a 14 day wait for grazing or harvest.
Tombstone [3]
(cyfluthrin)
2.6 to 2.8 fl oz/A
(0.04 to 0.044 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
Grasshopper
Damage: Feed on foliage. Can damage from spring through fall, but more of a problem in late summer. Small grasshoppers less than ½ inches are more easily controlled and can be spot treated with foliar spray if nesting sites are mapped out in spring.

Threshold: Small: 24 to 100 per yard2 (less than ½ inches)Large: 8 to 40 per yard2(greater than ½ inches)
PASTURE:
Baythroid XL [3]
(beta cyfluthrin)
2.6 to 2.9 fl oz/A
(0.02 to 0.022 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Besiege [3,28]
(lambda cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole)
6.0 to 10.0 fl oz/A0-day wait for grazing or harvest, 7-day wait for last cutting of hay.
Coragen (28)
(chlorantraniliprole)
2.0-5.0 fl oz
(0.026-0.065 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Declare [3]
(gamma cyhalothrin)
1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(0.01 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7-days for hay.
Dimilin 2L (15)2 fl oz/AApply when majority of grasshoppers are in the 2nd or 3rd instar nymphal stage (less than ½ inches). Do not exceed a total of 2 fl oz per year.
Karate w Zeon [3]
(lambda cyhalothrin)
1.28 to 1.92 fl oz
(0.2 to 0.3 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7-days for hay. (Other names: Grizzly, Kaiso, Lambdastar)
Malathion 5EC (1B)
(malathion)
1.4 pt
(0.92 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Mustang MAXX [3]
(zeta cypermethrin)
2.8 to 4.0 fl oz/A
(0.0175 to 0.025 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Sevin 4F, XLR Plus [1A]
(carbaryl)
2 to 3 pt
(1 to 1.5 lb ai)
For improved pasture: do not apply more than 2 applications per season and not more than once every 14 days. Sevin label states a 14 day waiting period for grazing or harvest in pastures.
Tombstone [3]
(cyfluthrin)
2.6 to 2.8 fl oz/A
(0.025 to 0.044 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
RANGE:
Baythroid XL [3]
(beta cyfluthrin)
2.6 to 2.9 fl oz/A
(0.02 to 0.022 lb ai/A)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Besiege [3,28]
(lambda cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole)
6.0 to 10.0 fl oz/A0-day wait for grazing or harvest, 7-day wait for last cutting of hay.
Coragen (28)
(chlorantraniliprole)
2.0-5.0 fl oz
(0.026-0.065 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
Declare [3]
(gamma cyhalothrin)
1.02 to 1.54 fl oz
(0.01 to 0.015 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7-days for hay.
Dimilin 2L (15)0.5 to 2 fl oz/AApplications of Dimilin may be applied as a Reduced Area & Agent Treatment (RAAT) strip spray. See label for specific directions. Apply when majority of grasshoppers are in the 2nd or 3rd instar nymphal stage (less than ½ inches) Do not exceed 1 fl oz/acre/year. If second application is needed, wait 2 to 3 weeks from 1st application.
Karate w Zeon [3]
(lambda cyhalothrin)
2.56 to 3.84 fl oz/A
(0.2 to 0.3 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing, 7 days for hay.
Malathion 5 EC (1B)
(malathion)
1.4 pt
(0.92 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Sevin SL [1A]2 to 4 pt/A
(1 to 2 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing. Do not make more than one application of Sevin per year, and do not exceed 1.0 lb ai/acre per year.
Mustang MAXX [3]
(zeta cypermethrin)
2.8 to 4.0 fl oz/A
(0.0175 to 0.025 lb ai)
0-day wait for grazing or harvest.
Sevin XLR Plus [1A]1 to 3 pt/A
(0.5 to 1.5 lb ai)
For Sevin XLR, registered for Reduced Area and Agent Treatment; aerial application is allowed only the USDA APHIS and State Grasshopper Programs only.
Tombstone [3]
(cyfluthrin)
2.6 to 2.8 fl oz/A
(0.04 to 0.044 lb ai)
0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
Housefly, Stable Fly
Dibrom 8 [1B]
Naled
0.8 to 1.6 fl oz/A24-hour waiting period for lactating cattle.
Pre-harvest Intervals and grazing restrictions 
Amdro7-day waiting period for harvest
Baythroid0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest.
Besiege0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest, 7-day wait for last cutting of hay
Blackhawk0-day waiting period for grazing, 3 days for hay or fodder
Coragen0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest
Declare0-day waiting period for grazing, 7 days for hay
Dimilin0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest
Esteem0-day waiting period for grazing, 1 day for harvest
Extinguish0-day waiting period for grazing, 7 days for hay or fodder
Karate0-day waiting period for grazing, 7 days for hay
LannateFor bermudagrass ONLY. 7-day waiting period for grazing, 3-day waiting period for harvest.
Malathion0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest
Mustang MAXX0-day waiting period for grazing or harvest
Sevin14-day waiting period for grazing or harvest

The pesticide information presented in this publication was current with federal and state regulations at the time of printing. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label directions. The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.

Tom A. Royer
Extension Entomologist

Justin L. Talley
Extension Entomologist

DASNR Extension Research CASNR
OCES  Contact
OCES
139 Agricultural Hall
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY